Hypertext Webster Gateway: "ground"

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Debatable \De*bat"a*ble\, a. [Cf. OF. debatable. See {Debate}.]
Liable to be debated; disputable; subject to controversy or
contention; open to question or dispute; as, a debatable

{The Debatable Land} or {Ground}, a tract of land between the
Esk and the Sark, claimed by both England and Scotland;
the Batable Ground.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Grind \Grind\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Ground}; p. pr. & vb. n.
{Grinding}.] [AS. grindan; perh. akin to L. frendere to
gnash, grind. Cf. {Grist}.]
1. To reduce to powder by friction, as in a mill, or with the
teeth; to crush into small fragments; to produce as by the
action of millstones.

Take the millstones, and grind meal. --Is. xivii.

2. To wear down, polish, or sharpen, by friction; to make
smooth, sharp, or pointed; to whet, as a knife or drill;
to rub against one another, as teeth, etc.

3. To oppress by severe exactions; to harass.

To grind the subject or defraud the prince.

4. To study hard for examination. [College Slang]

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Ground \Ground\ (ground), n. [OE. ground, grund, AS. grund; akin
to D. grond, OS., G., Sw., & Dan. grund, Icel. grunnr bottom,
Goth. grundus (in composition); perh. orig. meaning, dust,
gravel, and if so perh. akin to E. grind.]
1. The surface of the earth; the outer crust of the globe, or
some indefinite portion of it.

There was not a man to till the ground. --Gen. ii.

The fire ran along upon the ground. --Ex. ix. 23.
Hence: A floor or pavement supposed to rest upon the

2. Any definite portion of the earth's surface; region;
territory; country. Hence: A territory appropriated to, or
resorted to, for a particular purpose; the field or place
of action; as, a hunting or fishing ground; a play ground.

From . . . old Euphrates, to the brook that parts
Egypt from Syrian ground. --Milton.

3. Land; estate; possession; field; esp. (pl.), the gardens,
lawns, fields, etc., belonging to a homestead; as, the
grounds of the estate are well kept.

Thy next design is on thy neighbor's grounds.
--Dryden. 4.

4. The basis on which anything rests; foundation. Hence: The
foundation of knowledge, belief, or conviction; a premise,
reason, or datum; ultimate or first principle; cause of
existence or occurrence; originating force or agency; as,
the ground of my hope.

5. (Paint. & Decorative Art)
(a) That surface upon which the figures of a composition
are set, and which relieves them by its plainness,
being either of one tint or of tints but slightly
contrasted with one another; as, crimson Bowers on a
white ground. See {Background}, {Foreground}, and
(b) In sculpture, a flat surface upon which figures are
raised in relief.
(c) In point lace, the net of small meshes upon which the
embroidered pattern is applied; as, Brussels ground.
See {Brussels lace}, under {Brussels}.

6. (Etching) A gummy composition spread over the surface of a
metal to be etched, to prevent the acid from eating except
where an opening is made by the needle.

7. (Arch.) One of the pieces of wood, flush with the
plastering, to which moldings, etc., are attached; --
usually in the plural.

Note: Grounds are usually put up first and the plastering
floated flush with them.

8. (Mus.)
(a) A composition in which the bass, consisting of a few
bars of independent notes, is continually repeated to
a varying melody.
(b) The tune on which descants are raised; the plain song.
--Moore (Encyc.).

On that ground I'll build a holy descant.

9. (Elec.) A conducting connection with the earth, whereby
the earth is made part of an electrical circuit.

10. pl. Sediment at the bottom of liquors or liquids; dregs;
lees; feces; as, coffee grounds.

11. The pit of a theater. [Obs.] --B. Jonson.

{Ground angling}, angling with a weighted line without a

{Ground annual} (Scots Law), an estate created in land by a
vassal who instead of selling his land outright reserves
an annual ground rent, which becomes a perpetual charge
upon the land.

{Ground ash}. (Bot.) See {Groutweed}.

{Ground bailiff} (Mining), a superintendent of mines.

{Ground bait}, bits of bread, boiled barley or worms, etc.,
thrown into the water to collect the fish, --Wallon.

{Ground bass} or {base} (Mus.), fundamental base; a
fundamental base continually repeated to a varied melody.

{Ground beetle} (Zo["o]l.), one of numerous species of
carnivorous beetles of the family {Carabid[ae]}, living
mostly in burrows or under stones, etc.

{Ground chamber}, a room on the ground floor.

{Ground cherry}. (Bot.)
(a) A genus ({Physalis}) of herbaceous plants having an
inflated calyx for a seed pod: esp., the strawberry
tomato ({P. Alkekengi}). See {Alkekengl}.
(b) A European shrub ({Prunus Cham[ae]cerasus}), with
small, very acid fruit.

{Ground cuckoo}. (Zo["o]l.) See {Chaparral cock}.

{Ground cypress}. (Bot.) See {Lavender cotton}.

{Ground dove} (Zo["o]l.), one of several small American
pigeons of the genus {Columbigallina}, esp. {C. passerina}
of the Southern United States, Mexico, etc. They live
chiefly on the ground.

{Ground fish} (Zo["o]l.), any fish which constantly lives on
the botton of the sea, as the sole, turbot, halibut.

{Ground floor}, the floor of a house most nearly on a level
with the ground; -- called also in America, but not in
England, the {first floor}.

{Ground form} (Gram.), the stem or basis of a word, to which
the other parts are added in declension or conjugation. It
is sometimes, but not always, the same as the root.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

{Ground furze} (Bot.), a low slightly thorny, leguminous
shrub ({Ononis arvensis}) of Europe and Central Asia,; --
called also {rest-harrow}.

{Ground game}, hares, rabbits, etc., as distinguished from
winged game.

{Ground hele} (Bot.), a perennial herb ({Veronica
officinalis}) with small blue flowers, common in Europe
and America, formerly thought to have curative properties.

{Ground of the heavens} (Astron.), the surface of any part of
the celestial sphere upon which the stars may be regarded
as projected.

{Ground hemlock} (Bot.), the yew ({Taxus baccata} var.
Canadensisi) of eastern North America, distinguished from
that of Europe by its low, straggling stems.

{Ground hog}. (Zo["o]l.)
(a) The woodchuck or American marmot ({Arctomys monax}).
See {Woodchuck}.
(b) The aardvark.

{Ground hold} (Naut.), ground tackle. [Obs.] --Spenser.

{Ground ice}, ice formed at the bottom of a body of water
before it forms on the surface.

{Ground ivy}. (Bot.) A trailing plant; alehoof. See {Gill}.

{Ground joist}, a joist for a basement or ground floor; a.

{Ground lark} (Zo["o]l.), the European pipit. See {Pipit}.

{Ground laurel} (Bot.). See {Trailing arbutus}, under

{Ground line} (Descriptive Geom.), the line of intersection
of the horizontal and vertical planes of projection.

{Ground liverwort} (Bot.), a flowerless plant with a broad
flat forking thallus and the fruit raised on peduncled and
radiated receptacles ({Marchantia polymorpha}).

{Ground mail}, in Scotland, the fee paid for interment in a

{Ground mass} (Geol.), the fine-grained or glassy base of a
rock, in which distinct crystals of its constituents are

{Ground parrakeet} (Zo["o]l.), one of several Australian
parrakeets, of the genera {Callipsittacus} and
{Geopsittacus}, which live mainly upon the ground.

{Ground pearl} (Zo["o]l.), an insect of the family
{Coccid[ae]} ({Margarodes formicarum}), found in ants'
nests in the Bahamas, and having a shelly covering. They
are strung like beads, and made into necklaces by the

{Ground pig} (Zo["o]l.), a large, burrowing, African rodent
({Aulacodus Swinderianus}) about two feet long, allied to
the porcupines but with harsh, bristly hair, and no
spines; -- called also {ground rat}.

{Ground pigeon} (Zo["o]l.), one of numerous species of
pigeons which live largely upon the ground, as the
tooth-billed pigeon ({Didunculus strigirostris}), of the
Samoan Islands, and the crowned pigeon, or goura. See
{Goura}, and {Ground dove} (above).

{Ground pine}. (Bot.)
(a) A blue-flowered herb of the genus {Ajuga} ({A.
Cham[ae]pitys}), formerly included in the genus
{Teucrium} or germander, and named from its resinous
smell. --Sir J. Hill.
(b) A long, creeping, evergreen plant of the genus
{Lycopodium} ({L. clavatum}); -- called also {club
(c) A tree-shaped evergreen plant about eight inches in
height, of the same genus ({L. dendroideum}) found in
moist, dark woods in the northern part of the United
States. --Gray.

{Ground plan} (Arch.), a plan of the ground floor of any
building, or of any floor, as distinguished from an
elevation or perpendicular section.

{Ground plane}, the horizontal plane of projection in
perspective drawing.

{Ground plate}.
(a) (Arch.) One of the chief pieces of framing of a
building; a timber laid horizontally on or near the
ground to support the uprights; a ground sill or
(b) (Railroads) A bed plate for sleepers or ties; a
(c) (Teleg.) A metallic plate buried in the earth to
conduct the electric current thereto. Connection to
the pipes of a gas or water main is usual in cities.

{Ground plot}, the ground upon which any structure is
erected; hence, any basis or foundation; also, a ground

{Ground plum} (Bot.), a leguminous plant ({Astragalus
caryocarpus}) occurring from the Saskatchewan to Texas,
and having a succulent plum-shaped pod.

{Ground rat}. (Zo["o]l.) See {Ground pig} (above).

{Ground rent}, rent paid for the privilege of building on
another man's land.

{Ground robin}. (Zo["o]l.) See {Chewink}.

{Ground room}, a room on the ground floor; a lower room.

{Ground sea}, the West Indian name for a swell of the ocean,
which occurs in calm weather and without obvious cause,
breaking on the shore in heavy roaring billows; -- called
also {rollers}, and in Jamaica, {the North sea}.

{Ground sill}. See {Ground plate} (a) (above).

{Ground snake} (Zo["o]l.), a small burrowing American snake
({Celuta am[oe]na}). It is salmon colored, and has a blunt

{Ground squirrel}. (Zo["o]l.)
(a) One of numerous species of burrowing rodents of the
genera {Tamias} and {Spermophilus}, having cheek
pouches. The former genus includes the Eastern
striped squirrel or chipmunk and some allied Western
species; the latter includes the prairie squirrel or
striped gopher, the gray gopher, and many allied
Western species. See {Chipmunk}, and {Gopher}.
(b) Any species of the African genus {Xerus}, allied to

{Ground story}. Same as {Ground floor} (above).

{Ground substance} (Anat.), the intercellular substance, or
matrix, of tissues.

{Ground swell}.
(a) (Bot.) The plant groundsel. [Obs.] --Holland.
(b) A broad, deep swell or undulation of the ocean,
caused by a long continued gale, and felt even at a
remote distance after the gale has ceased.

{Ground table}. (Arch.) See Earth table, under Earth.

{Ground tackle} (Naut.), the tackle necessary to secure a
vessel at anchor. --Totten.

{Ground thrush} (Zo["o]l.), one of numerous species of
bright-colored Oriental birds of the family {Pittid[ae]}.
See {Pitta}.

{Ground tier}.
(a) The lowest tier of water casks in a vessel's hold.
(b) The lowest line of articles of any kind stowed in a
vessel's hold.
(c) The lowest range of boxes in a theater.

{Ground timbers} (Shipbuilding) the timbers which lie on the
keel and are bolted to the keelson; floor timbers.

{Ground tit}. (Zo["o]l.) See {Ground wren} (below).

{Ground wheel}, that wheel of a harvester, mowing machine,
etc., which, rolling on the ground, drives the mechanism.

{Ground wren} (Zo["o]l.), a small California bird ({Cham[ae]a
fasciata}) allied to the wrens and titmice. It inhabits
the arid plains. Called also {ground tit}, and {wren tit}.

{To bite the ground}, {To break ground}. See under {Bite},

{To come to the ground}, {To fall to the ground}, to come to
nothing; to fail; to miscarry.

{To gain ground}.
(a) To advance; to proceed forward in conflict; as, an
army in battle gains ground.
(b) To obtain an advantage; to have some success; as, the
army gains ground on the enemy.
(c) To gain credit; to become more prosperous or

{To get, or To gather}, {ground}, to gain ground. [R.]
``Evening mist . . . gathers ground fast.'' --Milton.

There is no way for duty to prevail, and get ground
of them, but by bidding higher. --South.

{To give ground}, to recede; to yield advantage.

These nine . . . began to give me ground. --Shak.

{To lose ground}, to retire; to retreat; to withdraw from the
position taken; hence, to lose advantage; to lose credit
or reputation; to decline.

{To stand one's ground}, to stand firm; to resist attack or
encroachment. --Atterbury.

{To take the ground} to touch bottom or become stranded; --
said of a ship.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Ground \Ground\ (ground), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Grounded}; p. pr.
& vb. n. {Grounding}.]
1. To lay, set, or run, on the ground.

2. To found; to fix or set, as on a foundation, reason, or
principle; to furnish a ground for; to fix firmly.

Being rooted and grounded in love. --Eph. iii.

So far from warranting any inference to the
existence of a God, would, on the contrary, ground
even an argument to his negation. --Sir W.

3. To instruct in elements or first principles.

4. (Elec.) To connect with the ground so as to make the earth
a part of an electrical circuit.

5. (Fine Arts) To cover with a ground, as a copper plate for
etching (see {Ground}, n., 5); or as paper or other
materials with a uniform tint as a preparation for

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Ground \Ground\, v. i.
To run aground; to strike the bottom and remain fixed; as,
the ship grounded on the bar.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Ground \Ground\,
imp. & p. p. of {Grind}.

{Ground cock}, a cock, the plug of which is ground into its
seat, as distinguished from a compression cock. --Knight.

{Ground glass}, glass the transparency of which has been
destroyed by having its surface roughened by grinding.

{Ground joint}, a close joint made by grinding together two
pieces, as of metal with emery and oil, or of glass with
fine sand and water.

From WordNet (r) 1.7 (wn)

adj : broken or pounded into small fragments; used of e.g. ore or
stone; "paved with crushed bluestone"; "ground glass is
used as an abrasive" [syn: {crushed}]
n 1: the solid part of the earth's surface; "the plane turned
away from the sea and moved back over land"; "the earth
shook for several minutes"; "he dropped the logs on the
ground" [syn: {land}, {dry land}, {earth}, {solid ground},
{terra firma}]
2: a rational motive for a belief or action; "the reason that
war was declared"; "the grounds for their declaration"
[syn: {reason}]
3: the loose soft material that makes up a large part of the
land surface; "they dug into the earth outside the church"
[syn: {earth}]
4: a relation that provides the foundation for something; "they
were on a friendly footing" or "he worked on an interim
basis" [syn: {footing}, {basis}]
5: a position to be won or defended in battle (or as if in
battle); "they gained ground step by step"; "they fought
to regain the lost ground"
6: the part of a scene (or picture) that lies behind objects in
the foreground; "he posed her against a background of
rolling hills" [syn: {background}]
7: material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in
which plants can grow (especially with reference to its
quality or use); "the land had never been plowed"; "good
agricultural soil" [syn: {land}, {soil}]
8: a relatively homogeneous percept extending back of the
figure on which attention is focused [ant: {figure}]
9: a connection between an electrical device and the earth
(which is a zero voltage) [syn: {earth}]
10: (art) the surface (as a wall or canvas) prepared to take the
paint for a painting
11: the first or preliminary coat of paint or size applied to a
surface [syn: {flat coat}, {primer}, {priming}, {primer
coat}, {priming coat}, {undercoat}]
v 1: fix firmly and stably; "anchor the lamppost in concrete"
[syn: {anchor}]
2: confine or restrict to the ground; "After the accident, they
grounded the plane and the pilot"
3: place or out on the ground
4: instruct someone in the fundamentals of a subject
5: bring to the ground, as of vessels [syn: {run aground}]
6: hit or reach the ground [syn: {run aground}]
7: throw (a football) to the ground in order to stop play and
avoid being tackled behind the line of scrimmage"
8: hit a groundball, in baseball; "he grounded to the second
9: hit (a baseball) onto the ground
10: cover with a primer; apply a primer to [syn: {prime}, {undercoat}]
11: connect to a ground, of electrical connections for safety
12: use as a basis for; found on; "base a claim on some
observation" [syn: {establish}, {base}, {found}]

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