Hypertext Webster Gateway: "under"

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Penalty \Pe"nal*ty\, n.; pl. {Penalties}. [F. p['e]nalit['e].
See {Penal}.]
1. Penal retribution; punishment for crime or offense; the
suffering in person or property which is annexed by law or
judicial decision to the commission of a crime, offense,
or trespass.

Death is the penalty imposed. --Milton.

2. The suffering, or the sum to be forfeited, to which a
person subjects himself by covenant or agreement, in case
of nonfulfillment of stipulations; forfeiture; fine.

The penalty and forfeit of my bond. --Shak.

3. A handicap. [Sporting Cant]

Note: The term penalty is in law mostly applied to a
pecuniary punishment.

{Bill of pains and penalties}. See under {Bill}.

{On}, or {Under}, {penalty of}, on pain of; with exposure to
the penalty of, in case of transgression.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Under \Un"der\, prep. [AS. under, prep. & adv.; akin to OFries.
under, OS. undar, D. onder, G. unter, OHG. untar, Icel.
undir, Sw. & Dan. under, Goth. undar, L. infra below,
inferior lower, Skr. adhas below. [root]201. Cf. {Inferior}.]
1. Below or lower, in place or position, with the idea of
being covered; lower than; beneath; -- opposed to over;
as, he stood under a tree; the carriage is under cover; a
cellar extends under the whole house.

Fruit put in bottles, and the bottles let down into
wells under water, will keep long. --Bacon.

Be gathered now, ye waters under heaven, Into one
place. --Milton.

2. Hence, in many figurative uses which may be classified as
(a) Denoting relation to some thing or person that is
superior, weighs upon, oppresses, bows down, governs,
directs, influences powerfully, or the like, in a
relation of subjection, subordination, obligation,
liability, or the like; as, to travel under a heavy
load; to live under extreme oppression; to have
fortitude under the evils of life; to have patience
under pain, or under misfortunes; to behave like a
Christian under reproaches and injuries; under the
pains and penalties of the law; the condition under
which one enters upon an office; under the necessity
of obeying the laws; under vows of chastity.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Under \Un"der\, adv.
In a lower, subject, or subordinate condition; in subjection;
-- used chiefly in a few idiomatic phrases; as, to bring
under, to reduce to subjection; to subdue; to keep under, to
keep in subjection; to control; to go under, to be
unsuccessful; to fail.

I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection. --1
Cor. ix. 27.

The minstrel fell, but the foeman's chain Could not
bring his proud soul under. --Moore.

Note: Under is often used in composition with a verb to
indicate lowness or inferiority in position or degree,
in the act named by the verb; as, to underline; to
undermine; to underprop.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Under \Un"der\, a.
Lower in position, intensity, rank, or degree; subject;
subordinate; -- generally in composition with a noun, and
written with or without the hyphen; as, an undercurrent;
undertone; underdose; under-garment; underofficer;

{Under covert} (Zo["o]l.), one of the feathers situated
beneath the bases of the quills in the wings and tail of a
bird. See Illust. under {Bird}.

From WordNet (r) 1.7 (wn)

adj 1: located below or beneath something else; "nether garments";
"the under parts of a machine" [syn: {nether}]
2: lower in rank, power, or authority; "an under secretary"
[syn: {under(a)}]
adv 1: down to defeat, death, or ruin; "their competitors went
2: through a range downward; "children six and under will be
admitted free"
3: into unconsciousness; "this will put the patient under"
4: in or into a state of subordination or subjugation; "we must
keep our disappointment under"
5: below some quantity or limit; "fifty dollars or under"
6: below the horizon; "the sun went under"
7: down below; "get under quickly!"
8: further down; "see under for further discussion" [syn: {below}]

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