Hypertext Webster Gateway: "that"

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

But what is used for but that, usually after a negative, and
excludes everything contrary to the assertion in the following
sentence. ``Her needle is not so absolutely perfect in tent and
cross stitch but what my superintendence is advisable.'' --Sir
W. Scott. ``Never fear but what our kite shall fly as high.''
--Ld. Lytton.

{What ho!} an exclamation of calling.

{What if}, what will it matter if; what will happen or be the
result if. ``What if it be a poison?'' --Shak.

{What of this}? {that?} {it?} etc., what follows from this,
that, it, etc., often with the implication that it is of
no consequence. ``All this is so; but what of this, my
lord?'' --Shak. ``The night is spent, why, what of that?''

{What though}, even granting that; allowing that; supposing
it true that. ``What though the rose have prickles, yet't
is plucked.'' --Shak.

{What time}, or {What time as}, when. [Obs. or Archaic]
``What time I am afraid, I will trust in thee.'' --Ps.
lvi. 3.

What time the morn mysterious visions brings.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

That \That\, pron., a., conj., & adv. [AS. [eth][ae]t, neuter
nom. & acc. sing. of the article (originally a demonstrative
pronoun). The nom. masc. s[=e], and the nom. fem. se['o] are
from a different root. AS. [eth][ae]t is akin to D. dat, G.
das, OHG. daz, Sw. & Dan. det, Icel. [thorn]at (masc. s[=a],
fem. s[=o]), Goth. [thorn]ata (masc. sa, fem. s[=o]), Gr. ?
(masc. ?, fem. ?), Skr. tat (for tad, masc. sas, fem. s[=a]);
cf. L. istud that. [root]184. Cf. {The}, {Their}, {They},
{Them}, {This}, {Than}, {Since}.]
1. As a demonstrative pronoun (pl. {Those}), that usually
points out, or refers to, a person or thing previously
mentioned, or supposed to be understood. That, as a
demonstrative, may precede the noun to which it refers;
as, that which he has said is true; those in the basket
are good apples.

The early fame of Gratian was equal to that of the
most celebrated princes. --Gibbon.

Note: That may refer to an entire sentence or paragraph, and
not merely to a word. It usually follows, but sometimes
precedes, the sentence referred to.

That be far from thee, to do after this manner,
to slay the righteous with the wicked. --Gen.
xviii. 25.

And when Moses heard that, he was content. --Lev.
x. 20.

I will know your business, Harry, that I will.

Note: That is often used in opposition to this, or by way of
distinction, and in such cases this, like the Latin hic
and French ceci, generally refers to that which is
nearer, and that, like Latin ille and French cela, to
that which is more remote. When they refer to foreign
words or phrases, this generally refers to the latter,
and that to the former.

Two principles in human nature reign; Self-love,
to urge, and Reason, to restrain; Nor this a
good, nor that a bad we call. --Pope.

If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this or
that. --James iv.

2. As an adjective, that has the same demonstrative force as
the pronoun, but is followed by a noun.

It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in
the day of judgment, than for that city. --Matt. x.

The woman was made whole from that hour. --Matt. ix.

Note: That was formerly sometimes used with the force of the
article the, especially in the phrases that one, that
other, which were subsequently corrupted into th'tone,
th'tother (now written t'other).

Upon a day out riden knightes two . . . That one
of them came home, that other not. --Chaucer.

3. As a relative pronoun, that is equivalent to who or which,
serving to point out, and make definite, a person or thing
spoken of, or alluded to, before, and may be either
singular or plural.

He that reproveth a scorner getteth to himself
shame. --Prov. ix. 7.

A judgment that is equal and impartial must incline
to the greater probabilities. --Bp. Wilkins.

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