Hypertext Webster Gateway: "scale"

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Micrometer \Mi*crom"e*ter\, n. [Micro- + -meter: cf. F.
An instrument, used with a telescope or microscope, for
measuring minute distances, or the apparent diameters of
objects which subtend minute angles. The measurement given
directly is that of the image of the object formed at the
focus of the object glass.

{Circular, or Ring}, {micrometer}, a metallic ring fixed in
the focus of the object glass of a telescope, and used to
determine differences of right ascension and declination
between stars by observations of the times at which the
stars cross the inner or outer periphery of the ring.

{Double image micrometer}, a micrometer in which two images
of an object are formed in the field, usually by the two
halves of a bisected lens which are movable along their
line of section by a screw, and distances are determined
by the number of screw revolutions necessary to bring the
points to be measured into optical coincidence. When the
two images are formed by a bisected object glass, it is
called a divided-object-glass micrometer, and when the
instrument is large and equatorially mounted, it is known
as a heliometer.

{Double refraction micrometer}, a species of double image
micrometer, in which the two images are formed by the
double refraction of rock crystal.

{Filar, or Bifilar}, {micrometer}. See under {Bifilar}.

{Micrometer} {caliper or gauge} (Mech.), a caliper or gauge
with a micrometer screw, for measuring dimensions with
great accuracy.

{Micrometer head}, the head of a micrometer screw.

{Micrometer microscope}, a compound microscope combined with
a filar micrometer, used chiefly for reading and
subdividing the divisions of large astronomical and
geodetical instruments.

{Micrometer screw}, a screw with a graduated head used in
some forms of micrometers.

{Position micrometer}. See under {Position}.

{Scale}, or {Linear}, {micrometer}, a minute and very
delicately graduated scale of equal parts used in the
field of a telescope or microscope, for measuring
distances by direct comparison.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Scale \Scale\, v. t.
1. To strip or clear of scale or scales; as, to scale a fish;
to scale the inside of a boiler.

2. To take off in thin layers or scales, as tartar from the
teeth; to pare off, as a surface. ``If all the mountains
were scaled, and the earth made even.'' --T. Burnet.

3. To scatter; to spread. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

4. (Gun.) To clean, as the inside of a cannon, by the
explosion of a small quantity of powder. --Totten.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Scale \Scale\ (sk[=a]l), n. [AS. sc[=a]le; perhaps influenced by
the kindred Icel. sk[=a]l balance, dish, akin also to D.
schaal a scale, bowl, shell, G. schale, OHG. sc[=a]la, Dan.
skaal drinking cup, bowl, dish, and perh. to E. scale of a
fish. Cf. {Scale} of a fish, {Skull} the brain case.]
1. The dish of a balance; hence, the balance itself; an
instrument or machine for weighing; as, to turn the scale;
-- chiefly used in the plural when applied to the whole
instrument or apparatus for weighing. Also used

Long time in even scale The battle hung. --Milton.

The scales are turned; her kindness weighs no more
Now than my vows. --Waller.

2. pl. (Astron.) The sign or constellation Libra.

{Platform scale}. See under {Platform}.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Scale \Scale\, v. i.
1. To separate and come off in thin layers or lamin[ae]; as,
some sandstone scales by exposure.

Those that cast their shell are the lobster and
crab; the old skins are found, but the old shells
never; so it is likely that they scale off. --Bacon.

2. To separate; to scatter. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Scale \Scale\, n. [L. scalae, pl., scala staircase, ladder; akin
to scandere to climb. See {Scan}; cf. {Escalade}.]
1. A ladder; a series of steps; a means of ascending. [Obs.]

2. Hence, anything graduated, especially when employed as a
measure or rule, or marked by lines at regular intervals.
(a) A mathematical instrument, consisting of a slip of
wood, ivory, or metal, with one or more sets of spaces
graduated and numbered on its surface, for measuring
or laying off distances, etc., as in drawing,
plotting, and the like. See {Gunter's scale}.
(b) A series of spaces marked by lines, and representing
proportionately larger distances; as, a scale of
miles, yards, feet, etc., for a map or plan.
(c) A basis for a numeral system; as, the decimal scale;
the binary scale, etc.
(d) (Mus.) The graduated series of all the tones,
ascending or descending, from the keynote to its
octave; -- called also the {gamut}. It may be repeated
through any number of octaves. See {Chromatic scale},
{Diatonic scale}, {Major scale}, and {Minor scale},
under {Chromatic}, {Diatonic}, {Major}, and {Minor}.

3. Gradation; succession of ascending and descending steps
and degrees; progressive series; scheme of comparative
rank or order; as, a scale of being.

There is a certain scale of duties . . . which for
want of studying in right order, all the world is in
confusion. --Milton.

4. Relative dimensions, without difference in proportion of
parts; size or degree of the parts or components in any
complex thing, compared with other like things;
especially, the relative proportion of the linear
dimensions of the parts of a drawing, map, model, etc., to
the dimensions of the corresponding parts of the object
that is represented; as, a map on a scale of an inch to a

{Scale of chords}, a graduated scale on which are given the
lengths of the chords of arcs from 0[deg] to 90[deg] in a
circle of given radius, -- used in measuring given angles
and in plotting angles of given numbers of degrees.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Scale \Scale\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Scaled}; p. pr. & vb. n.
To weigh or measure according to a scale; to measure; also,
to grade or vary according to a scale or system.

Scaling his present bearing with his past. --Shak.

{To} {scale, or scale down}, {a debt, wages, etc.}, to reduce
a debt, etc., according to a fixed ratio or scale. [U.S.]

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Scale \Scale\, n. [Cf. AS. scealu, scalu, a shell, parings; akin
to D. schaal, G. schale, OHG. scala, Dan. & Sw. skal a shell,
Dan. ski[ae]l a fish scale, Goth. skalja tile, and E. shale,
shell, and perhaps also to scale of a balance; but perhaps
rather fr. OF. escale, escaile, F. ['e]caille scale of a
fish, and ['e]cale shell of beans, pease, eggs, nuts, of
German origin, and akin to Goth. skalja, G. schale. See
1. (Anat.) One of the small, thin, membranous, bony or horny
pieces which form the covering of many fishes and
reptiles, and some mammals, belonging to the dermal part
of the skeleton, or dermoskeleton. See {Cycloid},
{Ctenoid}, and {Ganoid}.

Fish that, with their fins and shining scales, Glide
under the green wave. --Milton.

2. Hence, any layer or leaf of metal or other material,
resembling in size and thinness the scale of a fish; as, a
scale of iron, of bone, etc.

3. (Zo["o]l.) One of the small scalelike structures covering
parts of some invertebrates, as those on the wings of
Lepidoptera and on the body of Thysanura; the elytra of
certain annelids. See {Lepidoptera}.

4. (Zo["o]l.) A scale insect. (See below.)

5. (Bot.) A small appendage like a rudimentary leaf,
resembling the scales of a fish in form, and often in
arrangement; as, the scale of a bud, of a pine cone, and
the like. The name is also given to the chaff on the stems
of ferns.

6. The thin metallic side plate of the handle of a
pocketknife. See Illust. of {Pocketknife}.

7. An incrustation deposit on the inside of a vessel in which
water is heated, as a steam boiler.

8. (Metal.) The thin oxide which forms on the surface of iron
forgings. It consists essentially of the magnetic oxide,
{Fe3O4}. Also, a similar coating upon other metals.

{Covering scale} (Zo["o]l.), a hydrophyllium.

{Ganoid scale}. (Zo["o]l.) See under {Ganoid}.

{Scale armor} (Mil.), armor made of small metallic scales
overlapping, and fastened upon leather or cloth.

{Scale beetle} (Zo["o]l.), the tiger beetle.

{Scale carp} (Zo["o]l.), a carp having normal scales.

{Scale insect} (Zo["o]l.), any one of numerous species of
small hemipterous insects belonging to the family
{Coccid[ae]}, in which the females, when adult, become
more or less scalelike in form. They are found upon the
leaves and twigs of various trees and shrubs, and often do
great damage to fruit trees. See {Orange scale},under

{Scale moss} (Bot.), any leafy-stemmed moss of the order
{Hepatic[ae]}; -- so called from the small imbricated
scalelike leaves of most of the species. See {Hepatica},
2, and {Jungermannia}.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Scale \Scale\, v. t. [Cf. It. scalare, fr. L. scalae, scala. See
{Scale} a ladder.]
To climb by a ladder, or as if by a ladder; to ascend by
steps or by climbing; to clamber up; as, to scale the wall of
a fort.

Oft have I scaled the craggy oak. --Spenser.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Scale \Scale\, v. i.
To lead up by steps; to ascend. [Obs.]

Satan from hence, now on the lower stair, That scaled
by steps of gold to heaven-gate, Looks down with
wonder. --Milton.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Sexagenary \Sex*ag"e*na*ry\, a. [L. sexagenarius, fr. sexageni
sixty each, akin to sexaginta sixty, sex six: cf.
sexag['e]naire. See {Six}.]
Pertaining to, or designating, the number sixty; poceeding by
sixties; sixty years old.

{Sexagenary arithmetic}. See under {Sexagesimal}.

{Sexagenary}, or {Sexagesimal}, {scale} (Math.), a scale of
numbers in which the modulus is sixty. It is used in
treating the divisions of the circle.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Diminish \Di*min"ish\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Diminished}; p. pr.
& vb. n. {Diminishing}.] [Pref. di- (= L. dis-) + minish: cf.
L. diminuere, F. diminuer, OE. diminuen. See {Dis-}, and
1. To make smaller in any manner; to reduce in bulk or
amount; to lessen; -- opposed to {augment} or {increase}.

Not diminish, but rather increase, the debt.

2. To lessen the authority or dignity of; to put down; to
degrade; to abase; to weaken.

This doth nothing diminish their opinion. --Robynson

I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule
over the nations. --Ezek. xxix.

O thou . . . at whose sight all the stars Hide their
diminished heads. --Milton.

3. (Mus.) To make smaller by a half step; to make (an
interval) less than minor; as, a diminished seventh.

4. To take away; to subtract.

Neither shall ye diminish aught from it. --Deut. iv.

{Diminished column}, one whose upper diameter is less than
the lower.

{Diminished}, or {Diminishing}, {scale}, a scale of gradation
used in finding the different points for drawing the
spiral curve of the volute. --Gwilt.

{Diminishing rule} (Arch.), a board cut with a concave edge,
for fixing the entasis and curvature of a shaft.

{Diminishing stile} (Arch.), a stile which is narrower in one
part than in another, as in many glazed doors.

Syn: To decrease; lessen; abate; reduce; contract; curtail;
impair; degrade. See {Decrease}.

From WordNet (r) 1.7 (wn)

n 1: an ordered reference standard: "judging on a scale of 1 to
10" [syn: {scale of measurement}, {graduated table}, {ordered
2: relative magnitude; "they entertained on a grand scale"
3: the ratio between the size of something and a representation
of it; "the scale of the map"; "the scale of the model"
4: an indicator having a graduated sequence of marks
5: a specialized leaf or bract that protects a bud or catkin
[syn: {scale leaf}]
6: a thin flake of dead epidermis shed from the surface of the
skin [syn: {scurf}]
7: a series of notes differing in pitch according to a specific
scheme (usually within an octave) [syn: {musical scale}]
8: a measuring instrument for weighing; shows amount of mass
[syn: {weighing machine}]
9: a metal sheathing of uniform thickness (such as the shield
attached to an artillery piece to protect the gunners)
[syn: {plate}, {shell}]
10: a flattened rigid plate forming part of the body covering of
many animals
v 1: measure by or as if by a scale; "This bike scales only 25
2: pattern, make, regulate, set, measure, or estimate according
to some rate or standard
3: take by attacking with scaling ladders; "The troops took the
4: reach the highest point of; "We scaled the Mont Blanc" [syn:
5: climb up by means of a ladder
6: remove the scales from; "scale fish" [syn: {descale}]
7: measure with or as if with scales; "scale the gold"
8: size or measure according to a scale

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