Hypertext Webster Gateway: "cross"

From Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary (easton)

in the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence
used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Eph. 2:16; Heb. 12:2;
1 Cor. 1:17, 18; Gal. 5:11; 6:12, 14; Phil. 3:18). The word is
also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matt. 10:38;
16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).

The forms in which the cross is represented are these:

1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom."

2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross.

3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross.

4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of
cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the
projecting beam, was placed the "title." (See {CRUCIFIXION}.)

After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great
(B.C. 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of
Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a
flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc
signo vinces", i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that
on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him
to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a
new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and
borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman
army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the
embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek
letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and
Omega. (See {A}.)

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Cross \Cross\, v. t.

{To cross a check} (Eng. Banking), to draw two parallel
transverse lines across the face of a check, with or
without adding between them the words ``and company'',
with or without the words ``not negotiable'', or to draw
the transverse lines simply, with or without the words
``not negotiable'' (the check in any of these cases being
crossed generally). Also, to write or print across the
face of a check the name of a banker, with or without the
words ``not negotiable'' (the check being then crossed
specially). A check crossed generally is payable only when
presented through a bank; one crossed specially, only when
presented through the bank mentioned. Cross-buttock
\Cross"-but`tock\, n. (Wrestling)
A throw in which the wrestler turns his left side to his
opponent, places his left leg across both legs of his
opponent, and pulls him forward over his hip; hence, an
unexpected defeat or repulse.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Cross \Cross\ (kr[o^]s; 115), n. [OE. crois, croys, cros; the
former fr. OF. crois, croiz, F. croix, fr. L. crux; the
second is perh. directly fr. Prov. cros, crotz. fr. the same
L. crux; cf. Icel. kross. Cf. {Crucial}, {Crusade}, {Cruise},
1. A gibbet, consisting of two pieces of timber placed
transversely upon one another, in various forms, as a T,
or +, with the horizontal piece below the upper end of the
upright, or as an X. It was anciently used in the
execution of criminals.

Nailed to the cross By his own nation. --Milton.

2. The sign or mark of the cross, made with the finger, or in
ink, etc., or actually represented in some material; the
symbol of Christ's death; the ensign and chosen symbol of
Christianity, of a Christian people, and of Christendom.

The custom of making the sign of the cross with the
hand or finger, as a means of conferring blessing or
preserving from evil, is very old. --Schaff-Herzog

Before the cross has waned the crescent's ray. --Sir
W. Scott.

Tis where the cross is preached. --Cowper.

3. Affiction regarded as a test of patience or virtue; trial;
disappointment; opposition; misfortune.

Heaven prepares a good man with crosses. --B.

4. A piece of money stamped with the figure of a cross, also,
that side of such a piece on which the cross is stamped;
hence, money in general.

I should bear no cross if I did bear you; for I
think you have no money in your purse. --Shak.

5. An appendage or ornament or anything in the form of a
cross; a badge or ornamental device of the general shape
of a cross; hence, such an ornament, even when varying
considerably from that form; thus, the Cross of the
British Order of St. George and St. Michael consists of a
central medallion with seven arms radiating from it.

6. (Arch.) A monument in the form of a cross, or surmounted
by a cross, set up in a public place; as, a market cross;
a boundary cross; Charing Cross in London.

Dun-Edin's Cross, a pillared stone, Rose on a turret
octagon. --Sir W.

7. (Her.) A common heraldic bearing, of which there are many
varieties. See the Illustration, above.

8. The crosslike mark or symbol used instead of a signature
by those unable to write.

Five Kentish abbesses . . . .subscribed their names
and crosses. --Fuller.

9. Church lands. [Ireland] [Obs.] --Sir J. Davies.

10. A line drawn across or through another line.

11. Hence: A mixing of breeds or stock, especially in cattle
breeding; or the product of such intermixture; a hybrid
of any kind.

Toning down the ancient Viking into a sort of a
cross between Paul Jones and Jeremy Diddler. --Lord

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

12. (Surveying) An instrument for laying of offsets
perpendicular to the main course.

13. (Mech.) A pipe-fitting with four branches the axes of
which usually form's right angle.

{Cross and pile}, a game with money, at which it is put to
chance whether a coin shall fall with that side up which
bears the cross, or the other, which is called pile, or
reverse; the game called heads or tails.


{bottony or botton['e]}. See under {Bottony}.

{Cross estoil['e]} (Her.). a cross, each of whose arms is
pointed like the ray of a star; that is, a star having
four long points only.

{Cross of Calvary}. See {Calvary}, 3.

{Southern cross}. (Astron.) See under {Southern}.

{To do a thing on the cross}, to act dishonestly; -- opposed
to acting on the square. [Slang]

{To take up the cross}, to bear troubles and afflictions with
patience from love to Christ.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Cross \Cross\ (kr[o^]s), a.
1. Not parallel; lying or falling athwart; transverse;
oblique; intersecting.

The cross refraction of the second prism. --Sir I.

2. Not accordant with what is wished or expected;
interrupting; adverse; contrary; thwarting; perverse. ``A
cross fortune.'' --Jer. Taylor.

The cross and unlucky issue of my design.

The article of the resurrection seems to lie
marvelously cross to the common experience of
mankind. --South.

We are both love's captives, but with fates so
cross, One must be happy by the other's loss.

3. Characterized by, or in a state of, peevishness,
fretfulness, or ill humor; as, a cross man or woman.

He had received a cross answer from his mistress.
--Jer. Taylor.

4. Made in an opposite direction, or an inverse relation;
mutually inverse; interchanged; as, cross interrogatories;
cross marriages, as when a brother and sister marry
persons standing in the same relation to each other.

{Cross action} (Law), an action brought by a party who is
sued against the person who has sued him, upon the same
subject matter, as upon the same contract. --Burrill.

{Cross aisle} (Arch.), a transept; the lateral divisions of a
cruciform church.

{Cross axle}.
(a) (Mach.) A shaft, windlass, or roller, worked by levers
at opposite ends, as in the copperplate printing
(b) A driving axle, with cranks set at an angle of 90[deg]
with each other.

{Cross bedding} (Geol.), oblique lamination of horizontal

{Cross bill}. See in the Vocabulary.

{Cross bitt}. Same as {Crosspiece}.

{Cross bond}, a form of bricklaying, in which the joints of
one stretcher course come midway between those of the
stretcher courses above and below, a course of headers and
stretchers intervening. See {Bond}, n., 8.

{Cross breed}. See in the Vocabulary.

{Cross breeding}. See under {Breeding}.

{Cross buttock}, a particular throw in wrestling; hence, an
unexpected defeat or repulse. --Smollet.

{Cross country}, across the country; not by the road. ``The
cross-country ride.'' --Cowper.

{Cross fertilization}, the fertilization of the female
products of one physiological individual by the male
products of another, -- as the fertilization of the ovules
of one plant by pollen from another. See {Fertilization}.

{Cross file}, a double convex file, used in dressing out the
arms or crosses of fine wheels.

{Cross fire} (Mil.), lines of fire, from two or more points
or places, crossing each other.

{Cross forked}. (Her.) See under {Forked}.

{Cross frog}. See under {Frog}.

{Cross furrow}, a furrow or trench cut across other furrows
to receive the water running in them and conduct it to the
side of the field.

{Cross handle}, a handle attached transversely to the axis of
a tool, as in the augur. --Knight.

{Cross lode} (Mining), a vein intersecting the true or
principal lode.

{Cross purpose}. See {Cross-purpose}, in the Vocabulary.

{Cross reference}, a reference made from one part of a book
or register to another part, where the same or an allied
subject is treated of.

{Cross sea} (Naut.), a chopping sea, in which the waves run
in contrary directions.

{Cross stroke}, a line or stroke across something, as across
the letter t.

{Cross wind}, a side wind; an unfavorable wind.

{Cross wires}, fine wires made to traverse the field of view
in a telescope, and moved by a screw with a graduated
head, used for delicate astronomical observations; spider
lines. Fixed cross wires are also used in microscopes,

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Cross \Cross\, prep.
Athwart; across. [Archaic or Colloq.]

A fox was taking a walk one night cross a village.

{To go cross lots}, to go across the fields; to take a short
cut. [Colloq.]

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Cross \Cross\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Crossed} (kr?st; 115); p.
pr. & vb. n. {Crossing}.]
1. To put across or athwart; to cause to intersect; as, to
cross the arms.

2. To lay or draw something, as a line, across; as, to cross
the letter t.

3. To pass from one side to the other of; to pass or move
over; to traverse; as, to cross a stream.

A hunted hare . . . crosses and confounds her former
track. -- I. Watts.

4. To pass, as objects going in an opposite direction at the
same time. ``Your kind letter crossed mine.'' --J. D.

5. To run counter to; to thwart; to obstruct; to hinder; to
clash or interfere with.

In each thing give him way; cross him in nothing.

An oyster may be crossed in love. -- Sheridan.

6. To interfere and cut off; to debar. [Obs.]

To cross me from the golden time I look for. --Shak.

7. To make the sign of the cross upon; -- followed by the
reflexive pronoun; as, he crossed himself.

8. To cancel by marking crosses on or over, or drawing a line
across; to erase; -- usually with out, off, or over; as,
to cross out a name.

9. To cause to interbreed; -- said of different stocks or
races; to mix the breed of.

{To cross one's path}, to oppose one's plans. --Macaulay.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Cross \Cross\, v. i.
1. To lie or be athwart.

2. To move or pass from one side to the other, or from place
to place; to make a transit; as, to cross from New York to

3. To be inconsistent. [Obs.]

Men's actions do not always cross with reason. --Sir
P. Sidney.

4. To interbreed, as races; to mix distinct breeds.

If two individuals of distinct races cross, a third
is invariably produced different from either.

From WordNet (r) 1.7 (wn)

adj 1: extending or lying across; in a crosswise direction; at
right angles to the long axis; "cross members should
be all steel"; "from the transverse hall the stairway
ascends gracefully"; "transversal vibrations";
"transverse colon" [syn: {cross(a)}, {crossing(a)}, {transverse},
{transversal}, {thwartwise}]
2: perversely irritable [syn: {crabbed}, {crabby}, {fussy}, {grouchy},
{grumpy}, {bad-tempered}, {ill-tempered}]
n 1: a wooden structure consisting of an upright post with a
transverse piece
2: marking consisting of crossing lines [syn: {crisscross}, {mark}]
3: a cross as an emblem of Christianity; used in heraldry
4: any affliction that causes great suffering; "that is his
cross to bear"; "he bears his afflictions like a crown of
thorns" [syn: {crown of thorns}]
5: the act of mixing different breeds of animals [syn: {hybridization},
{hybridisation}, {crossbreeding}, {crossing}, {interbreeding},
v 1: travel across or pass over; "The caravan covered almost 100
miles each day" [syn: {traverse}, {track}, {cover}, {pass
over}, {get over}, {get across}, {cut through}, {cut
2: meet at a point [syn: {intersect}]
3: hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of; "What
ultimately frustrated every challenger was Ruth's amazing
September surge"; "foil your opponent" [syn: {thwart}, {queer},
{spoil}, {scotch}, {foil}, {frustrate}, {baffle}, {bilk}]
4: fold so as to resemble a cross; "she crossed her legs" [ant:
5: to cover a wide area; "Rivers traverse the valley floor",
"The parking lot spans 3 acres" [syn: {traverse}, {span},
6: meet and pass; "the trains crossed"
7: breed animals or plants using parents of different races and
varieties; "cross a horse and a donkey"; "Mendel tried
crossbreeding"; "these species do not interbreed" [syn: {crossbreed},
{hybridize}, {interbreed}]

Additional Hypertext Webster Gateway Lookup

Enter word here:
Exact Approx

Gateway by dict@stokkie.net
stock only wrote the gateway and does not have any control over the contents; see the Webster Gateway FAQ, and also the Back-end/database links and credits.