Hypertext Webster Gateway: "Reflection"

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Plane \Plane\, n. [F. plane, L. plana. See {Plane}, v. & a.]
1. (Geom.) A surface, real or imaginary, in which, if any two
points are taken, the straight line which joins them lies
wholly in that surface; or a surface, any section of which
by a like surface is a straight line; a surface without

2. (Astron.) An ideal surface, conceived as coinciding with,
or containing, some designated astronomical line, circle,
or other curve; as, the plane of an orbit; the plane of
the ecliptic, or of the equator.

3. (Mech.) A block or plate having a perfectly flat surface,
used as a standard of flatness; a surface plate.

4. (Joinery) A tool for smoothing boards or other surfaces of
wood, for forming moldings, etc. It consists of a
smooth-soled stock, usually of wood, from the under side
or face of which projects slightly the steel cutting edge
of a chisel, called the iron, which inclines backward,
with an apperture in front for the escape of shavings; as,
the jack plane; the smoothing plane; the molding plane,

{Objective plane} (Surv.), the horizontal plane upon which
the object which is to be delineated, or whose place is to
be determined, is supposed to stand.

{Perspective plane}. See {Perspective}.

{Plane at infinity} (Geom.), a plane in which points
infinitely distant are conceived as situated.

{Plane iron}, the cutting chisel of a joiner's plane.

{Plane of polarization}. (Opt.) See {Polarization}.

{Plane of projection}.
(a) The plane on which the projection is made,
corresponding to the perspective plane in perspective;
-- called also principal plane.
(b) (Descriptive Geom.) One of the planes to which points
are referred for the purpose of determining their
relative position in space.

{Plane of refraction} or {reflection} (Opt.), the plane in
which lie both the incident ray and the refracted or
reflected ray.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Reflection \Re*flec"tion\ (r?*fl?k"sh?n), n. [L. reflexio: cf.
F. r['e]flexion. See {Riflect}.] [Written also {reflexion}.]
1. The act of reflecting, or turning or sending back, or the
state of being reflected. Specifically:
(a) The return of rays, beams, sound, or the like, from a
surface. See {Angle of reflection}, below.

The eye sees not itself, But by reflection, by
some other things. --Shak.
(b) The reverting of the mind to that which has already
occupied it; continued consideration; meditation;
contemplation; hence, also, that operation or power of
the mind by which it is conscious of its own acts or
states; the capacity for judging rationally,
especially in view of a moral rule or standard.

By reflection, . . . I would be understood to
mean, that notice which the mind takes of its
own operations, and the manner of them, by
reason whereof there come to be ideas of these
operations in the understanding. --Locke.

This delight grows and improves under thought
and reflection. --South.

2. Shining; brightness, as of the sun. [Obs.] --Shak.

3. That which is produced by reflection. Specifically:
(a) An image given back from a reflecting surface; a
reflected counterpart.

As the sun water we can bear, Yet not the sun,
but his reflection, there. --Dryden.
(b) A part reflected, or turned back, at an angle; as, the
reflection of a membrane.
(c) Result of meditation; thought or opinion after
attentive consideration or contemplation; especially,
thoughts suggested by truth.

Job's reflections on his once flourishing estate
did at the same time afflict and encourage him.

4. Censure; reproach cast.

He died; and oh! may no reflection shed Its
poisonous venom on the royal dead. --Prior.

5. (Physiol.) The transference of an excitement from one
nerve fiber to another by means of the nerve cells, as in
reflex action. See {Reflex action}, under {Reflex}.

{Angle of reflection}, the angle which anything, as a ray of
light, on leaving a reflecting surface, makes with the
perpendicular to the surface.

{Angle of total reflection}. (Opt.) Same as {Critical angle},
under {Critical}.

Syn: Meditation; contemplation; rumination; cogitation;
consideration; musing; thinking.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) (web1913)

Angle \An"gle\ ([a^][ng]"g'l), n. [F. angle, L. angulus angle,
corner; akin to uncus hook, Gr. 'agky`los bent, crooked,
angular, 'a`gkos a bend or hollow, AS. angel hook, fish-hook,
G. angel, and F. anchor.]
1. The inclosed space near the point where two lines meet; a
corner; a nook.

Into the utmost angle of the world. --Spenser.

To search the tenderest angles of the heart.

2. (Geom.)
(a) The figure made by. two lines which meet.
(b) The difference of direction of two lines. In the lines
meet, the point of meeting is the vertex of the angle.

3. A projecting or sharp corner; an angular fragment.

Though but an angle reached him of the stone.

4. (Astrol.) A name given to four of the twelve astrological
``houses.'' [Obs.] --Chaucer.

5. [AS. angel.] A fishhook; tackle for catching fish,
consisting of a line, hook, and bait, with or without a

Give me mine angle: we 'll to the river there.

A fisher next his trembling angle bears. --Pope.

{Acute angle}, one less than a right angle, or less than

{Adjacent} or {Contiguous angles}, such as have one leg
common to both angles.

{Alternate angles}. See {Alternate}.

{Angle bar}.
(a) (Carp.) An upright bar at the angle where two faces of
a polygonal or bay window meet. --Knight.
(b) (Mach.) Same as {Angle iron}.

{Angle bead} (Arch.), a bead worked on or fixed to the angle
of any architectural work, esp. for protecting an angle of
a wall.

{Angle brace}, {Angle tie} (Carp.), a brace across an
interior angle of a wooden frame, forming the hypothenuse
and securing the two side pieces together. --Knight.

{Angle iron} (Mach.), a rolled bar or plate of iron having
one or more angles, used for forming the corners, or
connecting or sustaining the sides of an iron structure to
which it is riveted.

{Angle leaf} (Arch.), a detail in the form of a leaf, more or
less conventionalized, used to decorate and sometimes to
strengthen an angle.

{Angle meter}, an instrument for measuring angles, esp. for
ascertaining the dip of strata.

{Angle shaft} (Arch.), an enriched angle bead, often having a
capital or base, or both.

{Curvilineal angle}, one formed by two curved lines.

{External angles}, angles formed by the sides of any
right-lined figure, when the sides are produced or

{Facial angle}. See under {Facial}.

{Internal angles}, those which are within any right-lined

{Mixtilineal angle}, one formed by a right line with a curved

{Oblique angle}, one acute or obtuse, in opposition to a
right angle.

{Obtuse angle}, one greater than a right angle, or more than

{Optic angle}. See under {Optic}.

{Rectilineal} or {Right-lined angle}, one formed by two right

{Right angle}, one formed by a right line falling on another
perpendicularly, or an angle of 90[deg] (measured by a
quarter circle).

{Solid angle}, the figure formed by the meeting of three or
more plane angles at one point.

{Spherical angle}, one made by the meeting of two arcs of
great circles, which mutually cut one another on the
surface of a globe or sphere.

{Visual angle}, the angle formed by two rays of light, or two
straight lines drawn from the extreme points of an object
to the center of the eye.

{For Angles of commutation}, {draught}, {incidence},
{reflection}, {refraction}, {position}, {repose}, {fraction},
see {Commutation}, {Draught}, {Incidence}, {Reflection},
{Refraction}, etc.

From WordNet (r) 1.7 (wn)

n 1: a calm lengthy intent consideration [syn: {contemplation}, {meditation},
{reflexion}, {rumination}, {musing}, {thoughtfulness}]
2: the phenomenon of a propagating wave (light or sound) being
thrown back from a surface [syn: {reflexion}]
3: expression without words; "tears are an expression of
grief"; "the pulse is a reflection of the heart's
condition" [syn: {expression}, {manifestation}, {reflexion}]
4: the image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other
reflective material); "he studied his reflection in the
5: a likeness in which left and right are reversed [syn: {mirror
image}, {reflexion}]
6: a remark expressing careful consideration [syn: {observation},
7: the ability to reflect beams or rays [syn: {reflexion}, {reflectivity}]

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